# QUANTUM VOLUME – 128

## THE AQT PINE SYSTEM ACHIEVES THE HIGHEST PUBLISHED QUANTUM VOLUME OF 128 FOR A SYSTEM THAT IS DESIGNED, BUILT AND LOCATED IN EUROPE.

The Quantum Volume Test is an internationally applied benchmark that assesses and describes the computational power of a quantum computer with a single number. The higher the number, the more powerful the computer. The number is sensitive to the size of the quantum register, the quality of the control, and the versatility of controlling quantum information in different locations of the quantum memory. Although there are many more possible benchmarks available that may test individual components, the Quantum Volume Test is one of the simplest and most commonly used benchmarks that provides a holistic statement of the overall capabilities of a quantum system.

The PINE system has been designed by AQT, and a first prototype was validated in __European Quantum Technology Flagship__ activity AQTION at the University of Innsbruck. As of today, the AQT PINE system holds a record quantum volume of 128 within Europe. This achievement is perfectly aligned with the targets set in the __European Quantum Technology roadmap__ demonstrating strength of Austrian and European deep-tech development.

Supported by the European Innovation Council, AQT will make this system available via the cloud to European and international researchers soon.

### Details on the Quantum Volume Test

We ran 870 random quantum volume test circuits with 200 shots each on the AQT PINE system. The test resulted in a mean Heavy Output Probability (HOP) of 0.714 +/- 0.015 with twice the standard deviation of 2σ=0.031. Thus, the measured HOP is above the required threshold of 2/3 with a 99.89% confidence. The implemented circuits were generated using __IBM Qiskit__. The random circuits were further optimized using methods described in a __publication by Quantinuum__, which include Block combination, Block approximation, Mirroring and Arbitrary angles for Entangling gates. We highly appreciate the open access policy upheld by both academic and industry players in the thriving quantum ecosystem which helps to accelerate the impact of quantum technologies globally.

##### Figure 1: Measured Heavy Output Probabilities

For the Quantum Volume Test to be successful, the Heavy Output Probability (HOP) mustbe above the specified threshold of 2/3. The data shows that the mean HOP is above this treshold and the associated uncertainty decreases as the number of random circuits increases. Finally, the HOP exceeds the threshold by more than two standard deviations (2 sigma), which certifies that the AQT PINE system has a Quantum Volume of 128.

##### Figure 2: Random Circuit Example

The Quantum Volume Test consists of a series of random quantum circuits. A random circuit starts with the preparation of the qubits, followed by the implementation of several local single-qubit gates and interleaving two-qubit gates. Finally, the state of the qubits is measured and the result is obtained in the form of a classical bit string. The number of qubits (vertical extent) corresponds to the circuit width and the number of gate realizations (horizontal extent) describes the circuit depth.

##### Figure 3: Versatile and simple control

Using the programming language Python and various supported __quantum computing interfaces__, we provide versatile and simple control of the AQT quantum computing hardware. For instance: the implementation of the presented Quantum Volume Test requires only a few lines of codes in __Qiskit__. Individual circuits can already be tested on our publicly available __Quantum Simulators__.

### DID YOU KNOW?

**The PINE system requires only 2 full custom racks**, runs in a room temperature environment and consumes **less than 2kW of power**.